In every cell in the human body there is a nucleus, where genetic material is stored in genes. Genes carry the codes responsible for all of our inherited traits and are grouped along rod-like structures called chromosomes. Typically, the nucleus of each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, half of which are inherited from each parent. Down syndrome occurs when an individual has a full or partial extra copy of chromosome This additional genetic material alters the course of development and causes the characteristics associated with Down syndrome.
Facts about Down Syndrome
Down syndrome - Genetics Home Reference - NIH
Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition that is associated with intellectual disability, a characteristic facial appearance, and weak muscle tone hypotonia in infancy. All affected individuals experience cognitive delays, but the intellectual disability is usually mild to moderate. People with Down syndrome may have a variety of birth defects. About half of all affected children are born with a heart defect. Digestive abnormalities, such as a blockage of the intestine, are less common. Individuals with Down syndrome have an increased risk of developing several medical conditions.
This causes physical and mental developmental delays and disabilities. Many of the disabilities are lifelong, and they can also shorten life expectancy. However, people with Down syndrome can live healthy and fulfilling lives. Recent medical advances, as well as cultural and institutional support for people with Down syndrome and their families, provides many opportunities to help overcome the challenges of this condition.
Down syndrome is a condition in which a person has an extra chromosome. Typically, a baby is born with 46 chromosomes. Babies with Down syndrome have an extra copy of one of these chromosomes, chromosome Even though people with Down syndrome might act and look similar, each person has different abilities.